answering questions

PURPOSE AND TEST OBJECTIVESThis examination is designed to evaluate two (2) things: First, it is used to determine if students comprehend the course content and can apply the concepts presented (e.g., synthesis and application). Second, it provides students with a way to measure their level of effort against the expectations of the instructor.
It is my sincere hope that each of you will do extremely well!
FORMAT (105 POINTS POSSIBLE)Short Answer Questions: Seven (7) questions each worth 15 points. Each answer should be at least 250 words and should generally not exceed 350 words (not including any direct quotes, in-text citations, or references). Responses will be graded based upon how well you demonstrate your synthesis and application of the knowledge you have acquired. Persuasiveness, clarity, conciseness, and grammar also matter.
You must cite the textbook or any other sources that you use by including appropriate in-text citations for paraphrased or quoted material. Direct quotations require a page reference as part of the citation. You only need to include the bibliographic reference once at the end of the exam in the References section (Note: I already gave you the reference to the textbook; if you use a prior edition, please modify the reference accordingly.)
You are to use this Microsoft Word document to compile and submit your responses. Feel free to use as much space as necessary but please do not change the fonts or colors, as they will help me grade your exam. REMINDERThis exam is designed to test your individual knowledge of the subject matter. While it is open book (e.g., you may use any source material you wish), you are not to collaborate with anyone. I will process your exams through a plagiarism checker. If you are caught cheating, you will receive a zero on the exam, and you will be referred to Student Affairs for academic dishonesty.
1. A central theme of Chapter 1 is a component of bureaucratic responsibility referred to as accountability. What is accountability, how is it exercised in the U.S., and who are public officials accountable to? Do you think ethical standards and accountability are more rigorously maintained in the public sector versus the private sector? If so, why, or if not, why not?
2. Discuss what is meant by the phrase government by proxy and how this device has affected the U.S. government. Next, looking at the three levels of government, discuss examples of government by proxy where you believe this device is appropriate and when it is not.
3. Looking at organizational processes, explain the various ways a public organization differs from a private organization.
4. A fundamental problem for organizing government is how to effectively distribute power. Discuss the concepts of authority and hierarchy as they fit into the legitimacy of governmental power.
5. What are some of the problems a president faces in managing the executive branch? Compare and contrast these issues at the state and local levels of government?
6. The role of staff is an area of organizational concern in public government. Describe the various types of staff roles and discuss how staff activities may conflict with line activities.
7. Public management reform in the United States can often be characterized by three fundamental realities. Explain these realities and discuss where American governmental reforms tend to originate.

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