Because some children exposed to significant traumatic events do not develop post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there has been research interest in neurobiology and
assessment of predisposing or risk factors. Children with PTSD have been noted to have
which of the following when compared to age-matched controls?
A. Overactive amygdalae
B. Lower intelligence quotients
C. Preexisting personality disorders
D. Fourfold risk when first-degree family member affected