Carper’s ways of knowing essay example

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Carper’s ways of knowing essay example

This article is a Carper’s ways of knowing essay example. Study it to gain basic knowledge concerning Carper’s way of knowing and insights into how you can get expert Carper’s way of knowing essay help.

Essay Instructions

This is an individual writing assignment. For this assignment, consider Carper’s Ways of Knowing: empirical, personal, ethical, and aesthetic. For each way of knowing, describe a clinical situation including a nursing intervention you implemented while caring for a patient, family, group, or community. In your description, explain how the particular way of knowing informed the decision to implement the intervention.

Use one scholarly reference for each of your four explanations in order to provide support for your reasons that a particular intervention is an example of the selected way of knowing. Use a different reference for each of the four descriptions. Use references other than those provided in assigned course readings. APA formatting must be applied and errors in spelling and grammar must be absent; these are standard requirements for presenting scholarly, professional products. carper’s ways of knowing essay examples.

This assignment directly relates to the course objective ” Explore the development of nursing knowledge in the context of nursing science.”

Carper’s Ways of Knowing Essay


Personal understanding of practice requires accuracy for doctors. Clinical personnel get their expertise from philosophical assumptions. Nurses must have sufficient understanding of symbolic communication in order to do nursing. Epistemology reveals how nurses know and gain common knowledge in nursing by examining how knowing and knowledge are produced. Knowing is a manner of seeing and comprehending the world and oneself while knowledge is a description of the world that is relatively correct. Sounds, gestures, and actions are used to convey the information obtained through practice. Even in practice, much of what is already known may be represented formally.

Carper examined early nursing literature in 1978 and identified four persistent and essential patterns of knowledge that have shown to be effective and beneficial for nurses in practice. These nursing patterns of knowing are linked because nurses learn part of the discipline’s information during their basic education, and this knowledge is then expanded upon during practice (Benner, 2001).

Formalized nursing practice is established via the application of inquiry techniques based on both formal and practical methodologies. In my paediatric emergency department nursing practice, I’ve used these means of knowing to guarantee that my methods of practice are effective. This essay addresses Carper’s four modes of knowledge: ethical, personal, empirics, and aesthetics. It will analyze my example experiences critically, demonstrating these two approaches and how they have informed my work.

Carper’s Ways of Knowing

Carper’s Ways of Knowing is a taxonomy of the many sources and patterns in nursing from which information may be learned (Carper, 1978). Empirics, aesthetics, ethics, and personal knowledge are the four patterns that make up this taxonomy. In 1978, Carper suggested the four patterns to describe the complex phenomena of knowledge used by nurses while delivering patient care. The examination of two of the four types, ethical knowing, and personal knowing, is presented here.

According to Carper (1978), ethical knowing recognizes knowledge of ethical codes and norms by studying the rules, standards, and values that are considered ethically correct, leading to a deeper understanding of the moral decisions that must be made. Personal knowledge is concerned with understanding oneself as well as others. As a result, as one learns more about oneself, one may learn more about the other.

Personal Knowing

Personal knowledge is a key pattern in nursing, yet it is the most difficult to teach and perfect. On the other hand, it is a necessary pattern for comprehending the meanings of health terminology in terms of individual well-being. Nursing is an interpersonal process in which the nurse and the patient engage in transactions, relationships, and interactions (Carper, 1978).

Chinn and Kramer (1999) define personal knowledge as the development of experiences via self-encounters while focusing on the self and realizing life’s possibilities and realities. There are also contacts, experiences, and a concentration involved. The quality of a person’s interpersonal interactions and contact is clearly more impactful on the occurrence, recovery, and dealing with sickness (Chinn & Kramer, 1999). The experiencing, understanding, and actualizing of the individual self is the most important part of personal knowledge. A person who uses this word does not know about himself but retains a string to find out.

The nurse does not approach the patient as an object in the therapeutic use of self but instead strives to establish genuine human interactions (Chinn & Kramer, 1999). Other individuals generate a feeling of freedom in themselves and recognize each other when they agree to have an actual personal relationship. As a result, it is my obligation as a nurse to develop social connections with my patients and to treat them as people while doing my professional duties (Carper, 1978). With the development of personal awareness throughout life, complete expression of the actual self is possible, with only conscious interactions and acts allowing access.

Ethical Knowing

Practitioners and nurses have become more sensitive to the personal decisions that are tough to make in contemporary health care. Fundamental and major problems regarding wrongdoings and moral rights associated with disease care and treatment, as well as health promotion, are posed. The ethical method of knowing is a basic pattern of understanding that focuses on moral duties and directs what should be done (Chinn & Kramer, 1999). In the case of a complicated scenario, this component provides direction for making decisions.

Nurses are trained to perform what is proper and expected in each situation by following this pattern. This pattern encompasses key principles and characteristics of the nursing code of ethics, such as self-respect, regard for human dignity, and accountability, to name a few. According to Carper (1978), it extends beyond knowledge of ethical standards of behavior to include all intentional voluntary activities that are susceptible to the judgment of what is right or wrong. Examples of essays on Carper’s modes of knowing.

Moral dilemmas emerge in circumstances of uncertainty and ambiguity, particularly when one cannot forecast the implications of one’s behavior and the customary ideals that one is meant to follow without contradiction (Chinn & Kramer, 1999). The moral code is guided by the basic principle of duty, which is encompassed in the notion of helping others and valuing human life. In social services, nursing considers the preservation of life, promotion of health, and relief of suffering to be desirable and vital (Carper, 1978). As a result, using this method of knowing becomes critical, particularly when interacting with youngsters. Jacobs-Kramer and Chinn focused on justice in their examination of this component since it also accommodates the ethics of care.

As they service nursing knowledge, it is clear that Chinn and Kramer agree with Carper on what ethical and personal knowing involves. Personal knowledge is based on getting to know oneself better so that service can be done to others. Ethical knowing is focused on the moral commitments required during practice, while personal knowing is based on getting to know oneself better so that service can be offered to others. In their definitions, the writers express similar views as Carper.

Exemplars in Practice

In my pediatric career, I’ll never forget my experience with a scared three-year-old kid who was taken to the hospital by his grandmother. Every day, I encounter parents who are concerned about their children; nevertheless, this grandmother’s predicament had left her rattled. When the boy was admitted, it was revealed that he had sustained serious bodily injuries, necessitating the presence of social workers right once.

The arrival of the social workers further added to the urgency of the issue. The social workers’ handling of the matter astounded me. As a nurse, I was worried about the emergency case I was in charge of. The social workers, on the other hand, were anxious about interrogating the patient’s grandmother about the source of the patient’s physical injuries. The poor granny was at a loss for words when it came to explaining the nature of the injuries. The social workers were contributing to the uncertainty and anxiety in the emergency department by doing so.

The social workers’ involvement in the child’s situation had produced a major problem that needed the use of applied ethics to resolve. On the one hand, the frightened boy’s life was in jeopardy due to physical abuse. On the other hand, in a situation involving physical abuse of a kid, it was necessary to enable social workers to fulfill their obligations. It was beneficial to have some knowledge of applied ethics. While the social workers interrogated the child’s grandmother about the physical abuse, she remained stunned.

As a result, she wasn’t much of a help to the social workers. The social workers were certain that the grandma was taking them for a ride, thus tempers had flared. When I saw that the scenario in the emergency department was jeopardizing the patient’s wellbeing, I took command and ordered the social workers out. This gave the medical staff plenty of time and space to focus on the patient. The scared toddler was able to calm down in no time. He was also treated for the physical agony he was experiencing.

Working in a pediatric emergency department involves a certain level of familiarity with children. My ability to form a relationship with the youngster was important in soothing the distressed child. Because I knew and understood that the boy had suffered trauma at the hands of his tormentor, I was able to assure him that he was in good hands and that nothing horrible would happen to him again. This promise was just what the poor boy needed to regain his grin. I went on a quest to ultimately put an end to the bad blood between the child’s grandmother and the social workers by combining my personal expertise with practical ethics.

The grandmother, now at ease, was able to describe how she had put her own life in danger by forcibly removing the youngster from his parents. The kid’s parents were found to be heavily involved in drug misuse, and the youngster was seen as a hindrance. The child’s parents were to blame for the physical abuse he had been subjected to. It was clear that the social workers had spent time on a devastated grandma, putting the child’s life in jeopardy. Personal knowledge and practical ethics have always been at the heart of my work as a pediatric nurse.


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Nurses must comprehend what the various forms of knowing imply in order to generate both collective and individual responses to the creation of knowledge. Nursing knowledge may help to foster coherence by allowing nurses to make conscious decisions in order to avoid ethical issues during practice.

As a nurse, it will be critical for me to expand on the knowledge I currently have in my profession so that I may continue to grow and develop via new experiences. The ethical example has had an impact on my profession by teaching me how to deal with difficulties regarding children and their guardians. The personal knowing model taught me to appreciate others, particularly youngsters who are unable to protect themselves. Examples of essays on Carper’s modes of knowing.


  • Benner, P. E. (2001). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Pearson.
  • Carper, B. A. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in nursing science1(1), 13-24.
  • Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (1999). Theory and nursing integrated knowledge development.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is Carper’s 4 ways of knowing?

The centrality of reflexivity- challenging undergraduate nursing students  to “meet people where they are at”!
Carper’s and Chinn & Krammer’s Relational Engagement as Ways of Knowing

Empirics, aesthetics, ethics, and personal knowledge are the four patterns that make up this taxonomy.

2. What is Carper’s theory?

Carper’s Ways of Knowing is a taxonomy of the many sources and patterns in nursing from which information may be learned (Carper, 1978).

3. Can someone do my Carper’s way of knowing essay?

Yes. Feel free to contact our professionals at Studyaffiliates if you are still not confident that you can write your own Carper’s way of knowing essay using our essay guide. They will help you with your essay at an affordable fee.

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Carper’s ways of knowing essay examples

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