1a. (i) Explain what is meant by the terms soluble, solute, solvent, and solution, illustrating your answer by reference to potassium chloride and water
(ii) Give an example of a substance which is insoluble in water
(iii) Explain what is meant by the terms miscible and immiscible and give an example
of two miscible liquids and two immiscible liquids.
b. List and explain three general factors that affect the solubility of a gas in water
2. Explain with diagram, the structure and formation of the hydrated potassium ion and the hydrated chloride ion.
3. (α) An acidic, aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid, HCl (aq), has a pH of 2.5
(a) State which ions are present in the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid.
(b) Write balanced chemical equations to show the reactions which would occur if the
solution of hydrochloric acid was mixed with:
(i) magnesium metal
(ii) solid magnesium oxide
(iii) solid sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.
(c) Using answer to (a), explain why these reactions occur.
(β) An alkaline, aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, has a pH of 12.5
(a) State which ions are present in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide.
(b) Write balanced chemical equations to show the reaction which would occur if the sodium hydroxide solution was mixed with:
solid ammonium chloride, NH4Cl
a solution of hydrochloric acid, HCl
(c) Using answer to (a), explain why these reactions occur
4. Boiling water has a pH of 6.1. Does this means that boiling water is acidic?
Explain your answer.
5a. (i) Complete and balance each of the equations below
(a) HNO3 + H2O ———>
(b) HNO3 + H2SO4 ———>
(ii) For each equation in (i), identify the conjugate pairs.
(iii) Give an example of a substance which forms an alkali in water
b. The following equations represent various acid/base reactions. Complete and balance each equation, and in each case state which reactant is the acid and which the base is.
(i) HCl (g) + H2O (l) ———> H3O+ (aq) + (* ) (aq)
(ii) NH3 (g) + H2O (l) ———> (* ) (aq) + OH–(aq)
(iii) NH3 (g) + HCl (g) ———> (* )(s)