reactions of experimental animals that didn’t escape after repeated shocks. C. children who learn that they can get help instead of producing output. D. people who don’t sense a state of release. 20. Which of the following disorders appears under Disorders First Diagnosed in Infancy and Childhood in the DSM-IV-TR? A. Type-II diabetes B. Obsessive compulsive disorder C. Specific phobia D. Separation anxiety disorder End of exam – Problems in Late Childhood or Adolescence 1. All of the following are possible outcomes of illicit inhalant use, except A. hallucinations and delusions. B. brain atrophy. C. euphoria. D. improved health. 2. The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa is _______ percent. A. eight B. five C. one D. three 3. All of the following are true regarding those with anorexia nervosa, except A. approximately 30% will have a complete recovery. B. about 10% of those who are hospitalized will die. C. 50% will develop bulimia at some later stage. D. approximately 50% will have a partial recovery. 4. According to recent investigations, individuals with greater risk for alcohol dependence were found to have A. an abnormal dopamine receptor. B. higher levels of serotonin than normal. C. higher levels of norepinephrine than normal. D. increased activity in the prefrontal areas of the brain. 5. Sandra has a body mass index (BMI) of 30. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Sandra would be considered A. obese. B. normal. C. overweight. D. underweight. 6. The year is 2005 and Pat is trying to lose weight. Given the rates of dieting among different genders and ethnic groups, if Pat is in the group with the highest percentage, we would expect that Pat is a A. white female. B. black male. C. black female. D. Hispanic female. 7. Which of the following is not one of the risk factors that can increase body dissatisfaction in females? A. Encouraging maternal comments B. Internalization of ideal body image C. Negative affect D. Late maturation 8. In their study of middle school girls and body dissatisfaction, Keery and colleagues found all the following results concerning teasing, except A. among the negative outcomes for girls in family teasing situations were lower self-esteem and restrictive and bulimic eating behaviors. B. one-third were teased by at least one sibling. C. girls were especially sensitive to teasing by their mothers. D. one-quarter of the girls were subjected to teasing about their weight by their parents. 9. Nitrous oxide found in whipped cream dispensers is an example of which category of inhalants? A. Aerosols B. Nitrites C. Volatile solvents D. Gases 10. In his discussion of theoretical frameworks to account for feeding disorders of infancy or early childhood, Douglas omits which of the following theoretical models? A. Attachment Theory model B. Cognitive Theory model C. Developmental Theory model D. Learning Theory model 11. Which of the following is not one of the individual risk factors for substance use/abuse? A. Low harm avoidance B. Poor academic skills C. Novelty seeking D. Sensation seeking 12. Children spend an average of _______ hours a day sitting in front of a television or computer. A. 2 B. 4 C. 7 D. 6 13. Georgia has anorexia nervosa and demonstrates many symptoms of the restricting type. Which of the following is most likely to be associated with her disorder? A. Confrontational family interchanges B. Increased risk for alcohol abuse/dependence C. Cluster B personality disorders D. Increased risk for obsessive compulsive disorder 14. Substance abuse refers to A. recurrent and adverse consequences caused by the substance. B. substance withdrawal. C. compulsive reliance on a substance. D. substance tolerance. 15. One important finding of the Monitoring the Future (MTF) surveys is the existence of _______ effects to help explain trends in drug usage from generation to generation. A. cohort B. genetic C. peer D. media 16. Comparing youth in the community sample with and without substance use disorders (SUD), A. in the community sample, youth with SUD were significantly more likely to also be diagnosed with ADHD. B. there was little difference between these two samples, in the prevalence for also having any other disorder. C. in the community sample, youth with SUD were also significantly more likely to have eating disorders. D. there was no difference in the comorbidity rate between these two samples for depressive disorders. 17. In the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, among males, which ethnic group had the largest discrepancy between their perceptions of being overweight (body dissatisfaction) and their actually being overweight (BMI)? A. Hispanic males B. White males C. Native Indian males D. Black males 18. In comparing prevalence rates for youth with SUD in clinical and juvenile justice samples, A. anxiety has always been narrowly defined. B. internalizing disorders were higher in the clinical population. C. the juvenile justice sample had higher rates of comorbid disorders of mood or depression. D. there was no difference in the rate of any disorder and externalizing disorders. 19. Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a survey of youth drug habits that has been in existence since A. 1980. B. 1990. C. 1965. D. 1975. 20. From a biological model, which of the following has been found to relate to increased risk for developing an eating disorder (ED)? A. An elevated dopamine neurotransmitter B. Relatives who don’t have an ED C. An impulsive temperament D. High self-efficacy End of exam – Externalizing Problems 1. The DSM equates functioning substantially below the expected level to be a difference of A. 3 standard deviations. B. 1 standard deviation. C. 1.5 standard deviations. D. 2 standard deviations. 2. According to Olweus, _______ percent of bullies are later convicted of multiple criminal offences. A. 10 to 15 B. 40 C. 25 D. 30 3. The current DSM requires _______ symptoms for a diagnosis of ADHD in any category. A. 8 out of a possible 16 B. 9 out of a possible 15 C. 6 out of a possible 9 D. 8 out of a possible 14 4. The earliest ADHD-like symptoms (1902) were associated with A. minimal brain dysfunction. B. post-encephalitic behaviors. C. morbid defect of moral character. D. hyperkinetic reactions. 5. According to the DSM, the most difficult learning disorder to measure is A. disorder of written expression. B. reading disorder. C. disorder of developmental coordination. D. mathematics disorder. 6. Give an example of a covert nondestructive behavior. A. Stubbornness B. Truancy C. Theft D. Cruelty 7. According to the DSM-IV, one of the criteria is that symptoms of ADHD should have A. persisted for at least one year. B. be pervasive across situations. C. include symptoms of hyperactivity. D. onset before three years of age. 8. Which of the following is an example of an executive functioning task? A. Arranging objects according to a rule B. Shifting focus from one thing to another C. Expressing appropriate empathy to others D. Inhibiting an emotional response 9. Researchers have found all of the following to be true, except A. those with the inattentive type of ADHD are at no risk for the development of substance use. B. as many as two-thirds of children with ADHD experience sleep disturbances of periodic limb movement disorder or restless legs syndrome. C. the use of stimulant medication in children diagnosed with ADHD has been associated with increased risk for substance abuse in later adulthood. D. increased television exposure at ages one to three years was associated with attention problems at age seven. 10. Children with nonverbal learning disability may demonstrate all of the following symptoms, except A. poor ability to decode written information. B. poor ability to transfer social information between situations. C. deficits in visual/spatial processing. D. clumsiness, poor coordination. 11. Diagnosis of ADHD is so difficult in toddlers because symptoms of _______ are common at that age. A. low-risk-taking B. body dissatisfaction C. oppositional behavior D. minimal activity 12. Approximately _______ percent of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are diagnosed with major depressive disorder. A. 30 B. 25 C. 20 D. 15 13. All of the following neurotransmitters are part of the catecholamines, except A. epinephrine. B. acetycholine. C. norepinephrine. D. dopamine. 14. Which of the following is false regarding normal readers? A. Neural pathways mature from right to left. B. Neural pathways mature from back to front. C. Visual word and letter naming occurs in the posterior regions. D. Initially readers use the frontal regions. 15. Which of the following is true regarding sleep deprivation in children? A. Sleep deprivation can cause ADHD. B. The symptoms of sleep deprivation and ADHD are very different. C. Hyperactivity increases the more nights a child gets inadequate sleep. D. Children under 14 need at least 10 hours of sleep per night. 16. What percent of children with ADHD will likely continue to evidence symptoms in adolescence? A. 100% B. 75% C. 25% D. 50% 17. Although the majority of children demonstrate decreased aggression as they mature, _______ percent are likely to demonstrate patterns of stable and persistent aggressive and oppositional behaviors throughout development. A. under 5 B. more than 20 C. 10 to 15 D. 5 to 7 18. What is the typical age of onset for oppositional defiant disorder? A. 3 to 5 B. 4 to 8 C. 10 to 12 D. 14 to 19 19. Autumn is being touchy and argumentative with her mother. She is displaying _______ behavior. A. covert nondestructive B. covert destructive C. overt nondestructive D. covert nondestructive 20. In retrospective interviews, parents have mentioned a number of symptoms in the first year of life, regarding children who were later diagnosed with ADHD. Which of the following was not among the symptoms? A. Fearful temperament B. Irritability C. Difficult to soothe D. Excessive activity – Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 1. Which of the following is false regarding autism? A. Brains show reduced corpus callosum compared to normal brains. B. Brains show decreased circumference compared to normal brains. C. Males are four times more likely to be diagnosed. D. Autism occurs in approximately 200 cases per 100,000. 2. In 1992, the AAMR made a significant change in the way it visualized mental retardation relative to the DSM. This change involved A. reducing the levels of severity from four to three. B. dropping levels of severity in favor of levels of intensity of intervention needed. C. shifting the base IQ rate from 85 to 70. D. classification of MR along five, rather than four, levels of severity. 3. The risk for having a child with Down syndrome A. increases with the number of live births the mother has had. B. increases to 1 in 25 births for women over 45. C. increases with the number of children the mother has had. D. is approximately 1 in 300 births in mothers of normal birthing age. 4. The standard score distribution today predicts that _______ percent of individuals who take an IQ test would score within one standard deviation of the mean. A. 30 B. 16 C. 68 D. 34 5. George is seven years old, and he’s at risk for delay in several areas. The family has just moved to the new community with few resources. He was receiving assistance as an “at-risk” student in his previous school. According to IDEA (2004), A. George is entitled to the same services as any of his full-grown siblings. B. George will be entitled to services as an “at risk” student only because he was previously receiving those services in the school he was attending. C. George may not be eligible for services because providing services to “at risk” students his age is at the discretion of the school district. D. George will be provided services only until his eighth birthday, and then he will have to be reassessed to see if he meets criteria for another classification after that time. 6. The ICD-10 Codes refer to childhood disintegration disorder as A. progressive disintegrative psychosis of childhood. B. other childhood disintegrative disorder. C. dementia infantilis. D. Heller’s syndrome. 7. Which of the following is true regarding Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973? A. The act is a civil rights law. B. Alterations to educational programming can’t be implemented. C. This act is outdated and has been replaced by IDEA 2004. D. All the provisions of the act are still in effect.