Humanities 125: Introduction to Technology, Society and Values

Answer these questions you have to read the book .TEXT: Elements of Moral Philosophy Edition: 7th and Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Science, Technology and Society 13th Edition ISBN: 9781259665943 COURSE DESCRIPTION: An introduction to the relationship of economic, political, and social contexts to technological developments with a focus on human values. This is not a course in science, but a course about the relationships between science and society and about the social issues that arise from the advancement of science and technology. The main goal of this course is to provide you with the critical thinking skills to make rational ethical decisions concerning emerging technologies. Much of the class is a conversation in which we learn from each other. Asking questions, discussing the material and arguing (politely) also helps you understand the material and helps you develop the tools and skills that will be useful for your papers, your exams, and life in general. Finally, approach the material with an open mind. If you are not prepared to consider the possibility that, say, your current view on the moral status of genetically modified foods is incorrect, then you will most likely find this course very challenging. ———————————————————- notice!!; if you can send the first chapter once you finished it will be great . and so on Chapter One: What is Morality? 1. Explain the baby Theresa example and why it was controversial. What is the Benefits Argument and how does it compare to the We Should Not Use People as Means and the Wrongness of Killing arguments? 2 paragraphs 2. Explain the Jodie and Mary example and why it’s controversial. Compare the We Should Save as Many as We Can Argument with the Argument from the Sanctity of Human Life. 2 paragraphs 3. Explain the Tracy Latimer example and why it’s controversial. Discuss the arguments that condemned the killing (Wrongness of Discriminating against the Handicapped and the Slippery Slope arguments). 1 paragraph 4. Why is it difficult to come to an agreement on a full definition of morality? What can be gained in arriving at a minimal definition in the way that Rachels suggests? What is this minimal definition? What role does reason play in this conception? 2 paragraphs Chapter Two: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism 1. What is the Cultural Difference Argument? Why is it an appealing theory? Explain, using at least one of Rachels’ examples (funerary practices of Greeks and Callatians; infanticide and geronicide amongst Inuits/Eskimos). 2 paragraphs 2. What does Rachels find wrong with this theory? Explain his initial criticism of the logic of the argument. What are three additional reasons Rachels offers for rejecting this theory (relating to the consequences of accepting the theory)? 2 paragraphs 3. Discuss Rachels’ contention that all cultures share certain basic values, referring back to his original examples and then to his later example of female circumcision. What conclusion does he draw about the merits of Cultural Relativism? 2 paragraphs Chapter Four: Does Morality Depend on Religion? 1. What is the presumed connection between morality and religion? What does Divine Command Theory say about this connection? 2 paragraphs 2. What does Plato have to say about this theory, according to Rachels, and how does Natural Law theory relate to Plato’s point? 2 paragraphs 3. Explain Rachels’ discussion of Divine Command Theory as it relates to the problem of abortion. 2 paragraphs Chapters Seven and Eight: The Utilitarian Approach / The Debate Over Utilitarianism 1. What is the fundamental principle of utilitarianism? What are some examples of utilitarian reasoning? 2. What is the difference between act- and rule-utilitarianism? What would be some examples of moral situations where these two schools would disagree? 3. What are some of the major criticisms of a utilitarian approach to morality and how do the utilitarians reply? Chapters Nine and Ten: Are There Absolute Moral Rules? / Kant and Respect for Persons 1. Explain the two formulations of the Kantian “categorical imperative” using the concept of absolute moral rules in chapter 9 and that of respect for persons in chapter 10. Illustrate with examples. 3 paragraphs 2. What are some of the major criticisms of Kantian ethics and how would Kant respond to them? 2 paragraphs

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