Michael is a 13-year-old boy who was involved in a traumatic automobile accident in which his mother, the driver, was killed.

Michael is a 13-year-old boy who was involved in a traumatic automobile accident in

which his mother, the driver, was killed. After suffering multiple injuries and weeks in

the hospital, Michael was discharged to home with physical therapy. He ultimately made

a complete physical recovery but is unable to get into a car. Just the thought of riding in a

car produces profound physiologic symptoms. He has been diagnosed with post-

traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). His avoidance of riding in a car is conceptualized as:

A. Panic attacks

B. Operant conditioning

C. Hyper arousal

D. Flashbacks

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