Reply to one classmate by finding 1 journal article and 1 website that will provide further information to help the individual in the case study. Explain how the information from the article and website can help. (please summarize the article and website you found) RESPOND TO THIS *****1. How are vitamins classified? List the specific vitamins that fall under each classification and identify their respective roles/functions for overall health and athletic performance. Vitamins can be classified into two categories, depending on their solubility, water soluble and fat double. Vitamin B and its different complexes, choline, and vitamin C are all water soluble easily transported in the blood stream and any excess quickly removed thru urine, allowing a low chance of toxicity. B Complexes serve main as nervous system enhancers and tissue support, folate one of these complexes serves DNA and cellular division enhancers, this it’s importance to embryonic formation. Biotin and pantothenic (B-complex) aids in energy production and DNA repair. Vitamin C aid in collagen synthesis, immune functions and as a powerful antioxidant. Fat soluble vitamins require lipids as a means of transport, and quickly bind to them as well, do to this nature the risk of toxicity is higher since they can accumulate in our fat cells. Vitamins D, A, E, and K are all examples of this group and they’re functioning slightly more specialized than they’re water soluble counterparts. Vitamin D helps with calcium absorption and is the only Vitamin produce by the body, as a hormonal response to sun light absorption. Vitamin A serves immunes functions, vitamin K helps with blood clotting. 2. What are free radicals? Where do they come from and what effect do they have on the body? What are antioxidants? Which vitamins and related compounds serve as antioxidants in the body? Briefly describe how they work in the body. Free radicals are the product of oxidation that is consistently occurring in our bodies, oxygen atoms are highly reactive and can cause damage to cell membranes and DNA, which can later lead to mutations that can ultimately cause cancer. Vitamins such are C and E have the potential of neutralizing radical oxygen molecules be providing missing electrons. 3. What are the major minerals? What differentiates a major mineral from a trace mineral? Discuss the role for each of the major and trace minerals in the body and give specific food sources for each? Minerals are non-organic molecules, that server to aid metabolic processes in our physiology. Major minerals are required in amounts larger than 100 mg, while trace minerals are required in amounts less than 100 mg per day. Their specific functions have a wide range and can only be acquired via ingestion of foods. Iron for example is important in the creation of blood since hemoglobin requires an iron molecule at it center. Calcium is responsible for bone density and muscles contractions. Some serve as electrolytes such as chloride, sodium and potassium which aid in allowing proper electrical nerve impulses. The main sources for most minerals are plant based foods, such as magnesium, potassium, chromium, fluoride, selenium, manganese and calcium. Others such as iron, zinc, phosphorus are better sought through animal based foods. Selection of these sources is very important and depends on overall diet requirements and efficiencies. For example Calcium can be better obtained from spinach than from milk products, 8 oz. of milk will provide 300 grams of calcium along with higher caloric intake, while 300 grams of spinach provide the same amount but with more other vitamins and minerals and less a caloric impact. Sodium intake can be managed through table salt. Phosphorus and iron can be obtained through meats and legumes. 4. What is “water balance”? Which condition, a positive balance or negative balance, poses the greatest risk to athletes? Defend your answer. As a sports nutritionist, what practical guidelines would you give your athlete to help ensure adequate hydration during competition? Water balance is the maintenance of adequate water fluid levels in the body. Water most important role is to serve a reactive medium, thus ensuring PH balance, cooling and cellular structure. To an athlete the biggest risk is dehydration that can lead to ultimately lead to heat stroke. When a body is severely dehydrated the hearth is forced to pump harder due to the blood thickness, PH balance is placed at risk which also makes oxygen absorption and release an issue, body temperature rises which can compromise brain function. Athletes must understand that during physical activity they incur sever water loss by mean of sweat, this should be replace by proper hydration contain a good source of electrolytes supplementation, sport drinks designed to provide proper balance of all required substances..