You must include/adhere to the mandatory guidelines below: 1. Title page: Title of the essay, your full name, the course name and number, your section, and your instructor’s name in the middle or the top the page. The abstract should be included on the second half of the title page. 2. Abstract: An abstract is one full paragraph, approximately 5-10 sentences that fully summarizes your entire paper. The abstract should be printed on the title page. 3. The paper must be a bare minimum of four pages typed, double-spaced. The four pages do not include anything (title page, abstract, figures, bibliography, etc.) other than the text of the paper itself. Do not use subheadings. 4. You must have at least one peer-reviewed, original research journal article that is no more than four years old as your main source. Other journal articles and scholarly sources may also be used. Sources that cannot be used include, but are not limited to: encyclopedias, wikipedias, textbooks and commercial webpages. If you are uncertain of a source, ask your instructor. 5. In addition to APA formatting, the type-format must be strictly adhered to. Margins cannot be any larger than 2.5 cm (1 inch). Do not justify the 2 of updated 4/19 margins. Do not use anything larger than a 12 point font, and use a traditional print font, such as Times New Roman. Do not use anything larger than double spaced throughout the entire document (e.g. between paragraphs). 6. Scientific names of organisms must be italicized (e.g. Homo sapiens). Otherwise do not use bold, italics, underlines, headers, footers, footnotes, capital letters, subheadings, or any other formatting unless directed to do so by your instructor. 7. Illustrations, graphs and diagrams are encouraged, but do not count toward the four pages of written text. 8. Use your own words only. Do not use another author’s words/sentences, and you are not allowed to use any direct quotations from other authors. 9. The paper must be written in a formal tone and for a scientific audience. Do not write in the first person.