This paper will discuss the communicable disease influenza

This paper will discuss the communicable disease influenza. It will discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatments, as well as the demographics of interest. It will also discuss the determinants of health and how these factors contribute to the development of influenza. Included in this paper will be information on host, agent, and environmental factors. Lastly it will explain the role of the community health nurse in caring for those affected with influenza and the role they play in education and prevention. Description of Influenza Influenza, also known as the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus that infects the nose, throat, and lungs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). It can cause mild to severe illness, sometimes even death. The flu is different from the common cold. Symptoms of the flu usually have a rapid onset. These symptoms include: fever, chills, cough, sore throat, body aches, and fatigue. Influenza is transmitted mainly by droplets when people with the flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets become airborne and can land in people’s mouth or nose and get inhaled into the lungs. Experts believe the flu can be spread by these droplets to others up to 6 feet away (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). There is also some talk that the flu can be transmitted from surfaces. People touch the infected surfaces, then touch their own mouth or nose, even eyes, and get…
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1417 Words 4 Pages

Essay on Epidemiology of Rubella

…Epidemiology of Rubella NUR 408 August 6, 2012 Epidemiology of Rubella Pregnant women are one vulnerable group susceptible to contracting a viral disease. One viral disease that pregnant women can contract is rubella. Rubella is often a mild disease that affects children, adolescents, young adults, and is susceptible to pregnant women. The disease can be devastating when transmitted to the fetus. This paper will discuss the definition and description of epidemiology as well as the steps and methods of epidemiology as it relates to rubella and congenital rubella, by using the epidemiology triangle. The different types of epidemiology and various levels of prevention for rubella and congenital rubella will be viewed. Epidemiology is a valuable tool concerning nursing and health care. Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems” (Centers for Disease Control, 2006). Epidemiology is important concerning population health management because it examines how health related issues affect a community. This type of knowledge is used to determine how to lessen exposure to disease throughout the world. Epidemiology is considered the basic science of public health (Stanhope,…
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2220 Words 6 Pages

Epidemiology Paper

…Running head: Epidemiology paper: Tuberculosis Epidemiology Paper: Tuberculosis Richard Doria Grand Canyon University NRS-427V October 5, 2014 Epidemiology Paper: Tuberculosis “Tuberculosis (TB), a multisystem disease with myriad presentations and manifestations, is the most common cause of infectious disease–related mortality worldwide. Although TB rates are decreasing in the United States, the disease is becoming more common in many parts of the world. In addition, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB is increasing worldwide. TB is caused by M tuberculosis, a slow-growing obligate aerobe and a facultative intracellular parasite. The organism grows in parallel groups called cords (as seen in the image below). It retains many stains after discoloration with acid-alcohol, which is the basis of the acid-fast stains used for pathologic identification. Humans are the only known reservoir for M tuberculosis. The organism is spread primarily as an airborne aerosol from an individual who is in the infectious stage of TB (although transdermal and GI transmission have been reported). Classic clinical features associated with active pulmonary TB are as follows: cough, weight loss/anorexia, fever, night sweats, hemoptysis, chest pain, and fatigue. For initial empiric treatment of TB, patients are started on a 4-drug regimen: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and either ethambutol or streptomycin. Once the TB isolate is known to…
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1510 Words 5 Pages

Chickenpox and Its Epidemiology Essay

… Chickenpox and its Epidemiology Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health Nursing NRS 427V February 20, 2014 Chickenpox and its Epidemiology Chickenpox is a viral infection caused by the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) transmitted via the respiratory route that causes itchy, blisters-like rashes usually lasting about 5-10 days. It is highly contagious transmitted by person to person contact (direct) from respiratory secretions or indirectly through contact with airborne respiratory droplets, via soiled inanimate objects infected by discharge from skin lesions, vesicle discharges or nasopharyngeal secretions. The incubation period lasts about 10-21 days and the disease is communicable 1-2 days before and until the lesions become crusted. The symptoms includes a low grade fever, headache and listlessness which occurs in the prodromal period. This is followed by the appearance of an itchy rash usually mostly on the scalp and trunk but can affect the entire body and mucus membranes such as the mouth with an appearance of shallow white ulcers. The pruritic rash has three phase; macular, papular and vesicular which forms scab and crust over. Fetal effects are rare congenital symptoms which presents as congenital varicella syndrome with infection during the first trimester of pregnancy, low birth weight, extremity atrophy, scarring of the skin and eyes and neurological abnormalities (Maurer & Smith…
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2021 Words 6 Pages

Chicken Pox and Epidemiology Essay

… Chicken Pox and Epidemiology Sylvia Hoffman Grand Canyon University Chicken Pox and Epidemiology Chicken Pox is a virus caused by varicella-zoster, a member of the herpes family. This same virus also is a cause of herpes zoster other known as shingles in adults. Chicken pox is very contagious and can easily spread to people. Chicken pox is acquired by coming into contact with the fluid of a chicken pox blister, or airborne by an infected person sneezing near you. The blister-like rash usually lasts five to ten days. The incubation period lasts 10-21 days and a person with chickenpox becomes contagious one to two days before their blisters appear. The person with chicken pox remains contagious until all the blisters have crusted over. The symptoms of chicken pox are fever, headache, stomachache, sore throat, and the blister-like rash appears about 10-21 days after coming into contact with someone who had the virus. The average child develops about 250-500 small, blister- like over red spots on the skin. Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three phases. The first phase is describes as raised pin or red bumps known as papules, which break out over several days. The second phase is described as fluid-filled blisters known as vesicles, forming from raised bumps over about one day before breaking and leaking. The third phase is when the lesion crusts and scabs, which cover the broken blisters and take several more days to…
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1396 Words 6 Pages

Epidemiology Paper

…Epidemiology Paper HIV “Epidemiology today is considered to be the core science of public health and is described as a constellation of disciplines with a common mission: optimal health for the whole community” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology continues to play a large role in public health to improve on disease prevention and health promotion in communities across the United States and the World. The Gay, Lesbian, and Bi-sexual and Transgender (GLBT) community at it relates to HIV will be the main focus of this epidemiology paper. This paper will focus on the GBLT population in regards to their vulnerability and susceptibility to HIV, along with the epidemiology and levels of prevention. The following paper will discuss the definition and purpose of epidemiology, methods of epidemiology, the epidemiology triangle, as well as the levels of prevention that relate to HIV ethical and legal considerations, cultural considerations on health status, and how characteristics influence vulnerability in the GBLT community. According to Ard & Makadon, “Not only are lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and transgender people distinct populations, but each of these groups is itself a diverse population whose members vary widely in age, race and ethnicity, geographic location, social background, religiosity, and other demographic characteristics.”…
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1910 Words 6 Pages

Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Essay

…Chapter 14 – Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Pathology Infection and Disease 1. Pathology is the scientific study of disease – concerned with cause (etiology) and manner in which disease develops (pathogenesis) – Also concerned with structural and functional changes brought about by disease and final effects on the body 2. Infection – invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microorganisms 3. Disease – when infection results in change in state of health Normal Microbiota – 1. Free of microbes in utero, at birth gain lactobacilli in intestine from mothers vaginal canal, E. coli taken through food and inhabits intestine thru life 2. Ten times more bacterial cells than human cells in the body 3. Normal flora – normal microbiota 4. Transient microbiota – present for a while but disappear 5. Distribution of normal flora dependent on physical and chemical factors, defenses of the host and mechanical factors Relationship between Normal Flora and Host 1. Microbial antagonism – aka competitive exclusion – normal microbiota ability to protect the host from overgrowth of harmful microorganisms 2. Normal microbiota and host live in symbiosis – one is dependent on the other 3. The three types of symbiosis – commensalism (one organism benefits, other unaffected), mutualism (both benefit) and parasitism (one harmed and one benefits) 4. Probiotics – live microbial cultures applied to or ingested that are…
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1896 Words 7 Pages

Epidemiology Paper Final

… Epidemiology Paper Tammy McNamara Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V Sandra White This paper will involve information about the Influenza virus. Symptoms, causes and treatments, as well as some demographics will be discussed in this paper. The discussion will also include how and what factors contribute to the influenza virus. Last but not least the role of the community public health nurses involvement with the prevention, detection, administration of vaccines and education within the community. The Influenza virus is easily categorized as a very contagious respiratory virus caused by several types of influenza viruses that typically infect the nose, throat, and lungs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Although, it can cause anywhere from mild to severe illnesses, especially in the immune-compromised and young with little immune systems built up. Symptoms of Influenza usually appear rapidly. Fever, chills, cough, sore throat, body aches, and fatigue can be just a few of the main symptoms. Most transmission of the Influenza virus is typically through droplets. The droplets become airborne and can spread to surfaces or be inhaled into a…
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