Use the following normal blood gas values to answer each question.


·      What is the primary acid-base imbalance in a person with the above values? 


·      What information do you need to better determine? _________________________________

Problem E

Mr. Jones, age 77, began to have difficulty breathing at the casino after playing slots for only 20 minutes. He seemed dizzy and confused so he was taken to the ER where his symptoms responded to oxygen treatment.  He reports that he has had “heart failure”. On auscultation rales are heard. His ABGs were:  pH = 7.3, PaCO2= 46 and HCO3-= 22

What acid-base imbalance is present? _____________       ______________

Does he have left or right side heart failure?  Explain. __________________________________

Explain why this type of heart failure has caused the acid-base imbalance.  ________________


Problem F

An 18 year old female had a major skiing accident.  Her injuries included a complete transverse 

fracture of the left femur and tibia, multiple rib fractures and minor cuts and bruises.  Initial arterial 

blood gases were:  pH = 7.35, PaCO2 = 45 and HCO3-= 26

Interpret each value: (low, normal, high)

·      pH  _______________    PaCO2 ________________  HCO3-   _________________

After surgery and convalescence in the hospital she is released.  A few hours later, her friends

notice that she has become lethargic and somewhat unresponsive but they figure it is due to the 

pain medication and let her go to sleep.  The next day her friends are unable to wake her because 

she has slipped into a coma. 

Her blood gas values are now:  pH = 7.15, PaCO2= 70 and HCO3-= 25

How would you interpret each value?

·      pH  (low, normal, high)?  PaCO2  _______________   HCO3-    _________________

 What imbalance is present? __________________________________

Has compensation occurred? Explain. _____________________________________________

Why might this acid-base imbalance have occurred?  (There are several possibilities – list a couple.)

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